BREAKING: Cells Mutiny after Communicating with Cancer

In Brief:

  • Cancer develops mainly from mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
  • Cancer cells communicate with macrophages which help cancer cells invade tissues and spread throughout the body
  • New research may lead to drugs that prevent cancer from invading tissues or treatments that allow macrophages to fight off tumors

Picture the happy, healthy cells in your body going about their business and doing their jobs to keep you alive. Then one day, some evil cell comes along and gets these cells to turn on you. This may seem like a dramatic story of mutiny, but scientists have discovered that this is what actually happens in cancer. In fact, the happy, healthy cells that turn on you are the very cells that were supposed to protect you from disease.

It has long been established that cancer develops as a result of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Oncogenes promote normal cell division and when mutated, promote excessive cell division. This is similar to stepping on the gas pedal of a car and not being able to lift your foot. Tumor suppressor genes, on the other hand, slow down or stop cell division when it goes out of control and when mutated, can’t regulate cell division. In a car, a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene would be almost like removing the brakes. Ultimately, mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes allow mutated cells to divide uncontrollably and invade the body’s tissues.

While all of that is true, scientists are now finding that there is more to the story. In recent years, it has been discovered that cancer cells communicate with immune cells known as macrophages in order to invade tissues and spread throughout the body. This communication takes place when cancer cells send molecules to receptors on macrophages. For example, a cancer cell can communicate with a macrophage using the CSF-1 receptor, which would then activate different proteins that affect the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. As a result of this communication, macrophages can allow cancer cells to become invasive and deadly.
 
BREAKING: Cells Mutiny after Communicating with Cancer
 
Researchers like Dr. Salvatore Coniglio of Kean University (NJ) are trying to find out more about this link between macrophages and cancer cells. In his laboratory, Dr. Coniglio studies brain cancer and tries to determine which genes are expressed and which proteins are released by macrophages in a tumor-friendly environment. He believes that rather than fighting the tumor like immune cells would with a normal infection, macrophages are forced by cancer cells into supporting the tumor.

Dr. Coniglio hopes that research on the communication between cancer cells and macrophages will lead to better drugs to combat cancer. For example, if a drug were to block the receptors that cancer cells use to communicate with macrophages, the tumor would be less likely to spread out and invade other tissues or parts of the body. By figuring out how cancer cells force macrophages into supporting the tumor, scientists may also learn how to force macrophages into fighting the tumor. Dr. Coniglio emphasizes that a great gain of such research is the discovery of new information about cancer, which constantly contributes to finding better treatments and a happy ending to cancer’s tragic story.
 


Works Cited

  1. “Genetics of Cancer,” Annenberg Foundation, https://www.learner.org/courses/biology/textbook/cancer/cancer_3.html (accessed August 4, 2016).
  2. Dr. Salvatore J. Coniglio and others, “Microglial Stimulation of Glioblastoma Invasion Involves Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Colony Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor (CSF-1R) Signaling,” Molecular Medicine 18 (2012): 519-520, accessed August 4, 2016, http://static.smallworldlabs.com/molmedcommunity/content/pdfstore/11_00217_Coniglio.pdf
  3. Dr. Salvatore Coniglio in discussion with the author, August 2016.

Image Credits:
Feature Image:

By Graphic Designer – Sreya Das

  1. “Cancer Cells: Death (Step 3) https://visualsonline.cancer.gov/details.cfm?imageid=2370” by Susan Arnold (Edited). License: CC0 1.0

Story Image:

By Graphic Designer – Emily Metzger

  1. “Envelope https://pixabay.com/en/envelope-postage-letter-mail-158279/” by Anonymous https://pixabay.com/en/users/OpenClipart-Vectors-30363/ (Edited). License: CC0 1.0
  2. “Macrophage https://www.flickr.com/photos/niaid/30623015202/” by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases https://www.flickr.com/people/niaid/ (Edited). License: CC BY 2.0
  3. “Life of a Cancer Cell https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Life_of_a_Cancer_Cell.png” by Bruce Blaus https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:BruceBlaus (Edited). License: CC BY-SA 4.0
  4. “Bipyridine Ligand https://pixabay.com/en/bipyridine-ligand-chelating-3dballs-836116/” by Anonymous https://pixabay.com/en/users/WikimediaImages-1185597/ (Edited). License: CC0 1.0

Chief Editor: Aparna Ragupathi
Creative Team Coordinator: Sreya Das
Team Editor: Jenna Moldaver
Team Graphic Designer: Emily Metzger


This article was written by Jacqueline Fezza. As always, before leaving a response to this article please view our Rules of Conduct. Thanks! -cSw Editorial Staff

Jacqueline Fezza

Author: Jacqueline Fezza

Welcome to curiousSCIENCEwriters! I am a first year writer, and I am excited to share with you a topic that I actually conducted research on with Dr. Salvatore Coniglio during the summer of 2016. I just graduated from a high school that focuses on science and health, and hope to become a physician. Outside of curiousSCIENCEwriters, I have been very active in my school and my community. In school, I was an officer for Math League and Science League, a National Honor Society member, and an award-winning HOSA Future Health Professionals member. I am a Girl Scout Gold Award recipient for Science in Motion, a club that travels to different schools in the tri-state area and shows children how fun and important science is. I hope you learn a lot from reading my article!

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1 Comment

  1. I always love reading about local scientists like Dr. Salvatore Coniglio. It’s exciting to see that there are people all around us working towards finding effective treatments to cancers of all kinds.

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